To the Editor of The New York Times:
Of all the evidence of narrow mindedness and folly, I know of no greater than the stupid belief that this little planet is singled out to be the seat of life, and that all other heavenly bodies are fiery masses or lumps of ice. Most certainly, some planets are not inhabited, but others are, and among these there must exist life under all conditions and phases of development.
In the solar system Venus, the Earth, and Mars represent respectively, youth, full growth, and old age. Venus, with its mountains rising dozens of miles into the atmosphere, is probably as yet unfitted for such existence as ours, but Mars must have passed through all terrestrial states and conditions.
Civilized existence rests on the development of the mechanical arts. The force of gravitation on Mars is only two-thirds of that on earth, hence all mechanical problems must have been much easier of solution. This is even more so of the electrical. The planet being much smaller, the contact between individuals and the mutual exchange of ideas must have been much quicker, and there are many other reasons why intellectual life should have been on that planet phenomenal in its evolution.
To be sure, we have no absolute proof that Mars is inhabited. The straightness of the canals, which has been held out as a convincing indication to this effect, is not at all such. We can conclude with mathematical certitude that as a planet grows older and the mountains are leveled down ultimately every river must flow in a geodetically straight line. Such straightening is already noticeable in some rivers of the earth.
Believes Mars Signaled Him.
But the whole arrangement of the so-called waterways, as pictured by Lowell, would seem to have been designed. Personally I base my faith on the feeble planetary electrical disturbances which I discovered in the summer of 1899, and which, according to my investigations, could not have originated from the sun, the moon, or Venus. Further study since has satisfied me that they must have emanated from Mars. All doubt in this regard will be soon dispelled.
To bring forth arguments why an attempt should be made to establish interplanetary communication would be a useless and ungrateful undertaking. If we had no other reason, it would be justified by the universal interest which it will command, and by the inspiring hopes and expectations to which it would give rise. I shall rather concentrate my efforts upon the examination of the plans proposed and the description of a method by which this seemingly impossible task can be readily accomplished.
The scheme of signaling by rays of light is old, and has been often discussed, perhaps, more by that eloquent and picturesque Frenchman, Camille Flammarion, than anybody else. Quite recently Prof. W. H. Pickering, as stated in several issues of The New York Times, has made a suggestion which deserves careful examination.
The total solar radiation falling on a terrestrial area perpendicular to the rays amounts to eighty-three foot pounds per square foot per second. This activity, measured by the adopted standard, is a little over fifteen one-thousandth of a horse power. But only about 10 per cent. of this whole is due to waves of light. These, however, are of widely different lengths, making it impossible to use all to the best advantage, and there are specific losses unavoidable in the use of mirrors, so that the power of sunlight reflected from them can scarcely exceed 5.5 foot pounds per square foot per second, or about one one-hundredth of a horse power.
A Giant Reflector Needed.
In view of this small activity, a reflecting surface of at least one-quarter million square feet should be provided for the experiment. This area, of course, should be circular to insure the greatest efficiency, and, with due regard to economy, it should be made up of mirrors rather small, such as to meet best the requirements of cheap manufacture.
The idea has been advanced by some experts that a small reflector would be as efficient as a large one. This is true in a degree, but holds good only in heliographic transmission to small distances when the area covered by the reflected beam is not vastly in excess of that of the mirror. In signaling to Mars, the effect would be exactly proportionate to the aggregate surface of the reflections. With an area of one-quarter million square feet the activity of the reflected sunlight, at the origin would be about 2,500 horse power.
It scarcely need be stated that these mirrors would have to be ground and polished most carefully. To use ordinary commercial plates, as has been suggested, would be entirely out of the question, for at such an immense distance the imperfections of surface would fatally interfere with efficiency. Furthermore, expensive clock work would have to be employed to rotate the reflectors in the manner of heliostats, and provision would have to be made for protection against destructive atmospheric influence. It is extremely doubtful that so formidable an array of apparatus could be produced for $10,000,000, but this is a consideration of minor importance to this argument.
Sight Unlimited in a Vacuum.
If the reflected rays were parallel and the heavenly bodies devoid of atmospheres, nothing would be simpler than signaling to Mars, for it is a truth accepted by physicists that a bundle of parallel rays, in vacuo, would illuminated an area with the same intensity, whether it be near or infinitely remote. In other words, there is no sensible loss in the transmission of radiant energy through interplanetary or vacuous space. This being the case, could we but penetrate the prison wall of the atmosphere, we could clearly perceive the smallest object on the most distant star; so inconceivably tenuous, frictionless, rigid, and elastic is the medium pervading the universe.
The sun’s rays are usually considered to be parallel, and are virtually so through a short trajectory, because of the immense distance of the luminary. But the radiations, coming from a distance of 93,000,000 miles, emanate from a sphere 865,000 miles in diameter, and, consequently, most of them will fall on the mirrors at an angle less than 90 degrees, with the result of causing a corresponding divergence of the reflected rays. Owing to the equality of the angles of incidence and reflection, it follows that if Mars were at half the sun’s distance, the rays reaching the planet would cover an area of about one-quarter of that of the solar disk, or in round numbers, 147,000,000,000 square miles, which is nearly 16,400,000,000 times larger than that of the mirrors. This means that the intensity of the radiation received on Mars would be just that many times smaller.
To convey a definite idea, it may be stated that the light we get from the moon is 600,000 times feebler that that of the sun. Accordingly, even under these purely theoretical conditions the Pickering apparatus could do no more than produce an illumination 27,400,000 times feebler than that of the full moon, or 1,000 times weaker than that of Venus.
Atmosphere the Chief Obstacle.
The proceeding is based on the assumption that there is nothing in the path of the reflected rays except the tenuous medium filling all space. But the planets have atmospheres which absorb and refract. We see remote objects less distinctly, we perceive stars long after they have fallen below the horizon. This is due to absorption and refraction of the rays passing through the air. While these effects cannot be exactly estimated, it is certain that the atmosphere is the chief impediment to the study of the heavens.
By locating our observatories one mile above sea level the quantity of matter which the rays have to traverse on their way to the planet is reduced to one-third. But, as the air becomes less dense, there is comparatively little gain to be derived from greater elevation. What chance would there be that the reflected rays, reduced to an intensity far below that estimated above, would produce a visible signal on Mars? Though I do not deny this possibility, all evidence points to the contrary.
Lowell, a trained and restless observer, who has made the study of Mars his specialty and is working under ideal conditions, has been so far unable to perceive a light effect of the magnitude such as the proposed signaling apparatus might produce there. Phobos, the smaller of the two satellites of Mars — from seven to ten miles in diameter — can only be seen at short intervals when the planet is in opposition. The satellite presents to us an area of approximately fifty square miles, reflecting sunlight at least as well as ordinary earth, which has little over one-twelfth of the power of a mirror.
Stated otherwise, an equivalent effect at that distance would be produced by mirrors covering four square miles, which means two square miles of the same reflectors if located on earth, as it receives sunlight of twice the intensity. Now this is an area 222 times larger than that of the ten-million-dollar reflector, and yet Phobos is hardly perceptible. It is true that the observation of the satellite is rendered difficult by the glare of its mother planet. But this is offset by the fact that it is in vacuum and that its rays suffer little diminution through absorption and refraction of the earth’s atmosphere.
Mirror Signal Impossible Now.
What has been stated is thought sufficient to convince the reader that there is little to be expected from the plan under discussion. The idea naturally presents itself that mirrors might be manufactured which will reflect sunlight in parallel beams. For the time being this is a task beyond human power, but no one can set a limit to the future achievement of man.
Still more ineffective would be the attempt of signaling in the manner proposed by Dr. William R. Brooks and others, by artificial light, as the electric arc. In order to obtain a reflected light activity of 2,500 horsepower it would be necessary to install a power plant of not less than 75,000 horsepower, which, with its turbines, dynamos, parabolic reflectors and other paraphernalia, would probably cost more than $10,000,000. While this method would permit operation at favorable times, when the earth is nearer to, and has its dark side turned toward Mars, it has the disadvantage of involving the use of reflected rays necessarily more divergent than those of the sun, it being impossible to construct mirrors of the required perfection, and, without their use, the rays would be scattered to such an extent that the effect would be much smaller.
Reflecting surfaces of great extent can be had readily. Prof. R. W. Wood makes the odd suggestion of using the white alkali desert of the southwest for the purpose. Prof. E. Doolittle advises the employment of large geometric figures. In my opinion none of these suggestions is feasible. The trouble is, that the earth itself is a reflector, not efficient, it is true, but what it lacks in this respect is more than made up by the immensity of its area. To convey a perceptible signal in this manner it might require as much as 100 square miles reflecting surface
Wireless Offers the Best Plan.
But there is one method of putting ourselves in touch with other planets. Though not easy of execution, it is simple in principle. A circuit properly designed and arranged is connected with one of its ends to an insulated terminal at some height and with the other to earth. Inductively linked with it is another circuit in which electrical oscillations of great intensity are set up by means now familiar to electricians. This combination of apparatus is known as my wireless transmitter.
By careful attunement of the circuits the expert can produce a vibration of extraordinary power, but when certain artifices, which I have not yet described, are resorted to the oscillation reaches transcending intensity. By this means, as told in my published technical records, I have passed a powerful current around the globe and attained activities of many millions of horse power. Assuming only a rate of 15,000,000, readily obtainable, it is 6,000 times more than that produced by the Pickering mirrors.
But, my method has other and still greater advantages. By its employment the electrician on Mars, instead of utilizing the energy received by a few thousand square feet of area, as in a parabolic reflector, is enabled to concentrate in his instrument the energy received by dozens of square miles, thus multiplying the effect many thousands of times. Nor is this all. By proper methods and devices he can magnify the received effect as many times again.
It is evident, then, that in my experiments in 1899 and 1900, I have already produced disturbances on Mars incomparably more powerful than could be attained by any light reflectors, however large.
Electrical science is now so far advanced that our ability of flashing a signal to a planet is experimentally demonstrated. The question is, when will humanity witness that great triumph. This is easily answered. The moment we obtain absolute evidences that an intelligent effort is being made in some other world to this effect, interplanetary transmission of intelligence can be considered an accomplished fact. A primitive understanding can be reached quickly without difficulty. A complete exchange of ideas is a greater problem, but susceptible of solution.